If you visit the Hotel du Lac, an inexplicably French-named bed and breakfast catering to German and British on the shores of Lake Garda, in Italy, you will likely see some of the hotel’s collection of decorative inter-war travel posters, interspersed with the proprietor’s family’s wartime memorabilia. There is one from the 15th International Congress of Students in Venice: late summer, 1933: in high Brutalist style.

The gondolas all look like warships. Mantua, upstairs, is a fortress, shadow-cast. Ferrara is impregnable. The nostalgic effect normally produced by old-timey travel paraphernalia — the sense that if you could have only visited, only taken a room with a view, you’d have understood something so much more transcendent about the place than if you jostled your way past Influencers now — is tempered by the sense that these places don’t want you there to begin with.

These are not places you would have wanted to show up to with a Baedeker in tow. They are places you would want — secretly or overtly — to conquer you in battle.

In modern Twitter parlance: step on my throat, daddy.

There are few places in the world that break the aesthetic dichotomy of nostalgia and futurism so completely as the western bank of Lake Garda. Garda is, after all, home to the town of Salò: briefly the de facto wartime capital of Mussolini’s 1943-4 Italian Social Republic, a last-ditch attempt to rebuild fascist Italy in the face of both Allied and German invasion.

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Before that, though, it was home to the Italian poet-prophet-celebrity-statesman-Nietzschean-libertine Gabriele D’Annunzio, who retired to the area after (take a deep breath) his ultimately failed post-WWI effort to conquer the ethnically Italian, formerly-Habsburg Adriatic port city of Fiume (now Rijeka) and transform it into a decadent, occultist, ubermensch-led corporatist dictatorship complete with nightly fireworks and poetry readings.

(“They are not fascists,” an Italian friend told me, mournfully, of Garda’s residents, many of whom remain in thrall to one or both statesmen. “They are…nostalgists.”)

The Garda shore is marked by the legacy of these two men—and of their fascination with primordial masculine power, and with the erotic nature of what we might call brutal atavism: a philosophy (it might more accurately be termed an aesthetic) both of regression and of acceleration. It never manages to internally reconcile its futurism and its nostalgia — as an aesthetic, it never has to.

Rather, it evokes in its viewers a double sense: the pangs of loss, of Sehnsucht—that longing for a country one has never known—with the sadomasochistic stirrings of our Todestrieb, our death-drive. We ache as lovers do for the current world’s destruction, because the world we live in now cannot measure up to the one that must have existed: sometime, somewhere. It’s at once mournful and starkly, undeniably, sexy.

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This is to say: brutal atavism is a love not for a particular past—which is to say, an embodied past full of human beings, who lived in real cities, who breathed real air and ate real food—but rather one that is primordial, archetypical. It is a past of gods and heroes, chiseled and idealized. It is at once masculine and too mechanized to be fully gendered. It at once looks backwards to pre-civilizational domination, and forward to the age of robotic strength. It begins and ends with apocalypse: making it, like D’Annunzio’s symbol for Fiume (which appears on his Fiume flag): the ouroboros, the snake that eats its own tail.

The futurist poet F.T. Marinetti—who would later become a resident in the short-lived D’Annunzian Fiume—captures the high-octane intensity of brutal atavism best in his 1908 Futurist Manifesto. Excoriating scleretoric “museums, cemeteries” of Italy in favor of the beating pulse of the new:

We declare that the splendor of the world has been enriched by a new beauty: the beauty of speed. A racing automobile with its bonnet adorned with great tubes like serpents with explosive breath … a roaring motor car which seems to run on machine-gun fire, is more beautiful than the Victory of Samothrace.

In D’Annunzio’s Fiume—which lasted just fifteen months, from September of 1919 to Christmas of 1920—this kind of brutal atavism was as close as you could come to a civil religion. The city’s new battle cry “Eia, eia, eia! Alala!“—which later reverberated through those Mussolini’s brownshirts—was taken from that of Achilles in The Iliad.

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The Futurist novelist Mario Carli, writing two years after the city’s downfall, called D’Annunzio’s Fiume,

“an island of wonders that was to travel the oceans, taking its shining light to the continents drowning in the darkness of brutal capitalist speculation…this group of enlightened men, fanatics, mystic forerunners, managed to conjure up that atmosphere of passion for the future and poetic rebellion against the old faiths and ancient formulas that has been given the name of fiumanism.”

D’Annunzio’s army wore black uniforms with the skull and bones insignia of pirates (the design was later copied by the SS). The Fiume constitution demanded that poetry and folk singing be taught in schools, and that concert halls be built in every eventual province.

D’Annunzio’s Garda home, too, reflects that same brutal atavism. It is at once a temple to D’Annunzio’s automatic cult of personality and a visual representative of brutal atavism’s heady contrasts (D’Annunzio paid for the whole thing, as it happens, with money offered by his admirer, Benito Mussolini, who was effectively paying the poet off to stay firmly out of politics). The main house—the “priory,” a converted nineteenth-century villa—heavily influenced by the aesthetics D’Annunzio’s fin de siècle decadent phase, is a nostalgic labyrinth of candles and organs and brocade: a Zweig novella made flesh.

In one of the Vittoriale’s many ornately-decorated rooms, dedicated to syncretic religious symbolism, D’Annunzio combines Buddhist statues, Christian icons, the steering wheel of a speedboat, and the ouroboros-bearing flag of his failed Fiume effort. (Above the door, D’Annunzio’s conviction that as there are only five fingers, there are only five sins—he famously gave greed and lust a pass). Next door, in the heart of the estate’s garden, the bow of a gargantuan multi-story WWI battleship—the Puglia—another of Mussolini’s offerings. Up the hill: D’Annunzio’s own thoroughly brutalist mausoleum: pure, phallic stone, or else a raised middle finger.

the author flexing at the grave of Gabriele D’Annunzio

I would be lying if I did not find my visit to Garda—and my visit to the Vittoriale—discomfortingly intoxicating. D’Annunzian élan is both aesthetically appealing and erotically alluring. It’s transgressive—punk rock, you might even say—and mournful. It is designed to appeal to many of the circuits that fire so naturally in my brain: the same circuits that underpin my hunger for God. It fulfills my hunger for story, for poetry (I do, after all, have MORE POETRY!!! tattooed on my left arm), for meaning, for myth. It stokes my anger with the world as it is, promises that I can tear down the mediocrity and bourgeois nihilism I see in a secular, hyper-capitalist culture in which I do not feel at home. Brutal atavism feels good.

Brutal atavism—after all—re-enchants the world.

It is easy to forget, at times, that it does so by worshipping strength, war, domination—at once masculine biological primacy and its transubstantiation into post-corporeal machinism. It worships death—death inflicted, or death suffered—at both the beginning and the end of history: the primordial void that is, at least, preferable to an embodied and contingent and highly particular world.

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Its broad and broad-shouldered archetypes are not models for humanity as a whole. At most, they are the self-defeating self-deification of the would-be übermensch: and the death of the rest of us. Brutal atavism — for all its talk of blood and sweat — is profoundly anti-corporeal. It worships the Titans we cannot become, and death as the only honorable alternative to our mortality. It twists our erotic hunger for God to a sadomasochistic need for a boot to the face.

Or, as Marinetti put it: “We will glorify war—the world’s only hygiene—militarism, patriotism, the destructive gesture of freedom-bringers, beautiful ideas worth dying for, and scorn for woman.”

Brutal atavism worships, in other words, other gods.

The most obvious inheritors of brutal atavism, of course, are political fascists. In his 1932 manifesto The Doctrine of Fascism, Mussolini celebrated its potential as a new religion: a re-enchantment of a mediocre civilization.

Fascism sees in the world, not only those superficial, material aspects in which man appears as an individual, standing by himself, self-centered, subject to natural law, which instinctively urges him toward a life of selfish momentary pleasure; it…but the nation and the country; individuals and generations bound together by a moral law, with common traditions and a mission which suppressing the instinct for life closed in a brief circle of pleasure, builds up a higher life, founded on duty, a life free from the limitations of time and space, in which the individual, by self-sacrifice, the renunciation of self-interest, by death itself, can achieve that purely spiritual existence in which his value as a man consists.

But we can see the appeal of brutal atavism, more broadly, in reactionary pockets of the Internet disillusioned with the same thing D’Annunzio and his followers were (rightly) disillusioned with: a world that seems devoid of enchantment, that must be torn down or destroyed to make enchantment possible. Men’s rights activists, paleo lifters, the alt-right, scions of Frog Twitter like the notorious Bronze Age Pervert (whose self-help book, Bronze Age Mindset, reads like Nietzsche as put through a lolcats generator:

We are heated by a sun which has sired a champion of a thousand hour meditation under it, within his dominion there is revelation. Energy and vitality, the spinning chariot wheel, the burning metabolic body sculpture. The steamy tropical cycles of incomprehensible beauty and death.[1]

Christians these days often find in atavists—brutal and otherwise—uncanny fellow travelers. Last month, a bishop at the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops praised Jordan Peterson for helping young people see the importance of traditional values. Pick-up artists like Roosh V have made traditionalist Christianity part of their antimodern ethos: blurring the lines between the muscular theology of reactionary atavism and the countercultural ferocity of Christian sexual ethics. And in certain pockets of the Religious Internet, nostalgic atavism and Christian traditionalism have become inseparable: what is old and destructive of the modern culture is, by necessity, good, regardless of what alliances must be made to affect this.

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It is to be expected. Brutal atavists share with Christians, after all, the conviction that the modern world—particularly, the unenchanted modern world—is fundamentally broken, fundamentally in need of reformulating. Like Christians, these brutal atavists envision a return to an Eden: a place where the Venn diagram of Nature and Civilization is a circle. They envision a wholesale re-boot of humanity.

For Christians, this lure is tempting: it seems a ticket to an enchanted world. It seems a ticket back to Eden.

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But of course, such tickets are too good to be true.

As much as I love the works of D’Annunzio-the-poet, as much as I viscerally respond to the aesthetics of D’Annunzio-the-showman, as much as I want, deeply, to read every piece of history ever written about D’Annunzio-the-Duce (and I think anyone who wants to truly understand 2019 should start by doing so), as a Christian I cannot accept the brutal atavism of D’Annunzio-the-prophet.

As Christians, after all, we cannot hold to the primordial. Our God—our incarnate, crucified, resurrected, God—does not belong to the cataclysm-before-history, nor solely to the cataclysm-after.

Our God acts in history, in flesh-and-blood, in weakness, in contingency, in particularity. He is to be found not in the chisels of Grecian statuary but in skin and breath and—through the Eucharist—in food. His story is not a valorization of death but of its defeat: a historic resurrection that, in its absurdity, stops the world from spinning. The pagan cycles of birth and death, construction and destruction, are upended. Death is not the beginning, nor is it the end—and so it is not our god.

The world does not need an extrinsic re-enchantment—an apocalyptic sweeping of fire and blood—because it is already enchanted: the Incarnation has assured us of that. What it means to be human, in the image of God, is sacred, because once the primordial Logos became flesh. The apocalypse—the sense of things hidden—reveals a Kingdom of God that is earthly, that is resurrected, that beyond death. Christ is not merely present in a general way in the big and glorious ideas we associate with Enchantment, the archetypes of myth, but also in the quotidian and, yes, the apparently mediocre, whom the hidden mysteries show us to be worthy of our attentiveness, of our love. Christ—as Gerard Manley Hopkins put it—“plays in ten thousand/Lovely in limbs, and lovely in eyes not his/To the Father through the features of men’s faces.”

We may well wish to return to Eden. Our nostalgia remains with us—a Sehnsucht for that undiscovered country, like the fantastic Polynesia wistfully envisioned by midcentury tiki bars. We may experience a pang when witnessing that longing—whether it’s on a wall in Gargnano, or in a poem by Hopkins.

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And we can well rage against those elements of the modern world—which is to say, the world since the Fall—that separate us from that homecoming. We can indeed revolt, as that brutal atavist Julius Evola, did, against the modern world. We can work to change it; we can look forward to its redemption.

But we cannot destroy the thisness of our world to get there.

Eden will not be reconquered with fire and blood, or with gondolas that look like warships. What we are promised, in the Kingdom of God, is not binary—the Petersonian narrative of order defeating chaos, of Marduk defeating Tiamat, of masculine imposing order on the feminine—but the creative subversion of the both/and.

The coming Christ is at once a warrior against evil and a sacrificial lamb; he is at once the true order that reveals the narrative meaningfulness of our existence and the fecund chaos that tears down false binaries and earthly hierarchy. He is carpenter and king. He is not a faceless Jungian or Campbellian hero, a simple and digestible archetype, but a man of one particular place and time and death, and also God who comes again in glory to judge the living and the dead. He sits at the right hand of the father; he dies upon the cross.

When the heavens and earth are melted away, the Kingdom of God will be disclosed. Destruction is not the final goal—a hopeless abyss that is, to our atavists, the only alternative to a life that cannot be but mediocre, but an interstitial step towards a new creation: towards presence.

It is an apocalypse not simply in the aesthetic, violent sense of cataclysm. It is also an unveiling: a revelation of things hidden. The goal, after all, of all good poetry.

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  1. https://froudesociety.wordpress.com/2017/02/11/why-bapism-why-now/
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Posted by Tara Isabella Burton

Tara Isabella Burton is the author of the forthcoming nonfiction book STRANGE RITES: NEW RELIGIONS FOR A GODLESS WORLD (Public Affairs, 2020) and the novel SOCIAL CREATURE (Doubleday, 2018). She is a contributing editor at The American Interest and a columnist at Religion News Service. She received a DPhil in Theology from Trinity College, Oxford, in 2017.


  1. You know Mere-O’s made it when you see a TIB byline.


  2. Thoughtful piece. That said, I’d suggest that brutal atavism is not hidden away in some interstitial places within Christian circles. For example, the PCA and SBC have both affirmed the Nashville Statement by overwhelming numbers, despite the fact that certain portions of it reflect a philosophy of brutal atavism that valorizes pagan formulations of masculinity.


  3. Some unhappy muddying of currents of modernism going on here by way of play with this word brutal, it seems to me. Doesn’t defeat the piece entirely, I don’t think, but certainly gets in the way. It is particularly jarring to find that crisply tailored neoclassical erection at D’Annunzio’s grave called “thoroughly brutalist.” Brutalism comes later, isn’t stone, isn’t clean, is never at ease with symmetry and verticality, etc., and really belongs to a post- rather than inter-war generation’s unsuccessful struggle over the political and the formal in Europe. Deserves clearer working out here.


    1. Does this word salad mean anything? Honestly. brutalism because it shows no value and seeks only to offend.

      also, you talking about modernism while being a modernist (a dreherite) is absurd.


  4. […] is tapping into the last of these pairs of binaries. Which leads to a strange hypothesis: among the brutal atavisms on offer for the Current Year, we may need to number the progressive […]


  5. What we are promised, in the Kingdom of God, is not binary—the Petersonian narrative of order defeating chaos, of Marduk defeating Tiamat, of masculine imposing order on the feminine—but the creative subversion of the both/and.

    “Creative subversion of the both/and” IS the triumph of Order over Chaos, but on a higher level. This is why humans are referred to collectively as Man, despite being comprised of both male and female individuals. Creativity is Order, but it is not an Order that rejects the Chaos.


    1. your failing is assuming a gnostic (and therefore dualist view). evil is not a thing, just an absence.


      1. Who said anything about evil?


        1. I did, and so did your worship and excuses for your gnosticism.


          1. Alright dude.

          2. you were going on about your “order” vs “chaos” dualism, which is freemason by the way, which is some flavor of the usual “light” vs “dark” nonsense.

            I heard ortho heretics are big fans of tielhard de chardin (you are personally influenced at minimum), and your rhetoric fits in with that along with your satanic name. were you going to go on about a “noosphere” or “omega point” eventually?

            In fact, I think your entire point WAS to reference the tielhardian “omega point” nonsense.

          3. You’re arguing with someone who’s not me, friend.

          4. you, demon, are not my friend. you are my “target” though.

            An argument is a point, the word you are looking for is quarrel (debate pile mean both sides have an argument), and my argument is against what you said some time ago.

            What you said reminds me of the self-referential inanity of the protestant “New Testament scholarship” which is just absurd, ahistorical satanism trying to hide behind gnosticism.

          5. You are 100% correct. Consider this target destroyed.

          6. Yes Daddy.

          7. Tell it to God, with Contrition. Should you fail…

          8. Hull?

          9. Is this your demon’s name?

          10. Trying to guess your redacted vowel. Hill?

          11. Another name? you are nervous. Good.

          12. Hall? Anthony Michael Hall?

          13. I have yet to see someone this obsessed about committing s*c*de-by-cop.

            Well, there are plenty on twitter, but those people were already like that before they met me.

          14. I think you meant to post this on a different hijacked thread, mate.

          15. trying to project by despair? Do you even remember what I was writing *specifically to you in response to you* before you decided to go dissociative here? Let me put you back on track:
            What you said reminds me of the self-referential inanity of the protestant “New Testament scholarship” which is just absurd, ahistorical satanism trying to hide behind gnosticism.

            you were going on about your “order” vs “chaos” dualism, which is freemason by the way, which is some flavor of the usual “light” vs “dark” nonsense.

            so you are at maximum a freemason and at minimum severely influenced by them.

          16. You haven’t said anything remotely relevant to either my initial comment or the article, but your delusion is amusing, I’ll give you that.

          17. your post here is so generic it could be posted to anything at all, as it addresses nothing in my post especially since the post you are responding to here is a complete restatement of my thesis and with some extra added on.

            Note also that you make this kind of projection as I make sure to reiterate and expand my point. you must have read at least a few words into my post or had some “intuition” about it, because you not only responded instantly, but the summation of your post is that you went completely dissociative in a circle.

            “delusion” is an interesting accusation though. the sov*ets (HUGE fans of tielhard) used the term “paranoid” “schitzcophrenic” “derraanged” and *”delusional”* to mark people for ex*c*tion in the serbski institute.

            What was the “crime?” simply standing in the way of a communist.

            How convenient and a “blast from the past” on your part. The only question is how a white suburbanite millennial/zoomer like yourself learned mid-20th century ex*c*tion tactics from the ussr, and learned so implicitly you do so on reflex.

            Repent while you still can.

          18. Please reply with more delusional irrelevancies.

          19. Another projectathon post that addresses nothing. Another attempt at sov*et ex*c*tion tactics from before your parents were born.

            you are blocked, intellectual coward.

            you can’t even define “chaos” or “order” (neither can freemasons, where’re you took your views from), but you think of them as dualistic “forces,” unaware that evil isn’t a thing but an absence of Good.

            Try The Church, rather than hell.

          20. Thank you. More, please.

  6. […] who’ve read me here before know that I have a complicated relationship with the poet Gabriele D’Annunzio, who at once embodied better than anyone else the creation of […]


  7. […] of Friedrich Nietzsche written by an ESL-middle-school-message-board troll” (I prefer the “lolcats Nietzsche” myself), Anton’s review is correct to take elements of this seeming internet troll seriously. […]


  8. “It is to be expected. Brutal atavists share with Christians, after all, the conviction that the modern world—particularly, the unenchanted modern world—is fundamentally broken, fundamentally in need of reformulating. Like Christians, these brutal atavists envision a return to an Eden: a place where the Venn diagram of Nature and Civilization is a circle. They envision a wholesale re-boot of humanity.”

    The use of the term “brutal atavists” is a simplistic caricature… the type of one dimensional smears leftists routinely engage in. In actual terms the brutality of late has little or nothing to do with “brutal atavists” on the right.

    The notorious “anti” fascists-in-action – ANTIFA – are on the far-left. It has staged more assaults and acts of intimidation that any equivalent right-wing activist group. The daylight assault on conservative journalist Andy Ngo in Portland was just one example of their thuggish behavior. What about LGBT bullying and intimidation of businesses and corporations that don’t fall in line with their agenda. In Ontario their bullying tactics were directed at shutting down the leftist/feminist activist, Meghan Murphy, because they didn’t like her views on certain trans issues.

    The left talks up the alleged threat of violence from the right… and yet all we see are Democrat politicians inciting incivility and confrontation i.e. Waters… among others. We see Republican politicians being driven from restaurants… being shot at during a Congressional baseball game in Virginia (a game for chartity no less) … Rand Paul being brutally assaulted on his own property… and endless numbers of Trump supporters bullied and assaulted for the “crime” of wearing a MAGA hat.

    Sorry but the actual fascism… the actual extremism… can be found in all of the above instances and also on our desktops. Big tech, specifically Google, has made it clear that they will be putting their thumb on the scale in an effort to impact the upcoming US election. When challenged they offer up lame explanations involving algorithms or errors. YouTube and Google have banned hundreds of Trump ads. YouTube’s Susan Wojcicki offered no believable explanation to CBS on the matter, but had the nerve to say: “Our systems, our algorithms, they don’t have any concept of understanding what’s a Democrat, what’s a Republican.”

    Given what the left is really up to in the US today, It’s pretty clear where the real war-on-democracy originates. There is a very real possibility the 2020 election will be rigged… and it won’t be by the Russians.


  9. “And in certain pockets of the Religious Internet, nostalgic atavism and Christian traditionalism have become inseparable: what is old and destructive of the modern culture is, by necessity, good, regardless of what alliances must be made to affect this.”

    There is a crucial distinction to be drawn between exoteric Christianity i.e. “the church” and more esoteric aspects of faith and practice that transcend political and cultural considerations. The latter is part of a current that is unaffected by culture wars to a large degree, the former is part of the historical narrative and engaged in struggle. Christ made the often overlooked point “Do not suppose I came to bring peace to the earth. I did not come to bring peace, but a sword.”

    Pairing “reactionary atavism” with “Christian traditionalism” and “muscular theology” by way of making a dark point is something only people who have been around in the last couple of decades would even get. When Christianity is divided from its historical tradition and parsed to please transitory modernist trends and needs… reflected in rainbow flags and NGO-like missions etc… you end up with something else entirely. Humanitarian, inclusive, progressive perhaps… but Christianity it is not.


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