Christians love pop culture these days. But the subset of Christians who love pop culture the most is pastors, writers, and academics. Pop culture as a mode of “engagement”; pop culture as a means of “reaching” this or that group; pop culture as a way of “relating” to students: all these and more are celebrated and commended and practiced in churches, classrooms, and websites every day.

“Finding the gospel in [pop culture artifact X]” is a ubiquitous and representative genre. Christians love pop culture, and Christians with an audience want fellow Christians to love pop culture.

Why is that? Why should Christians like, love, or “engage with” pop culture?

I don’t think there are very many, or perhaps any, good answers to that question.

Now, sociologically and empirically, we can surely posit some reasons for the lovefest. Christians, especially conservative Christians, especially conservative evangelical Christians, have tended to be socially and culturally disreputable, either isolated or self-exiled from dominant norms, media, and elite artistic production.

When that has taken the form of anxious parents “protecting” their children from, say, Disney or Hollywood, it could assume unhealthy forms. Moreover, once such children grow up—or, perhaps, move up in terms of class—they may discover that, as it happens, The Lion King and Return of the Jedi and even some R-rated movies aren’t so bad after all.

More broadly, knowledge of pop culture is the lingua franca of upwardly mobile bourgeois-aspirational twenty- and thirty-somethings working white collar jobs in big cities (not to mention college, the gateway to such a destination). I remember a long car ride I once took with three academic colleagues, one of whom had not seen a single “relevant” or popular film or TV show from the previous decade. The result? He basically sat out the conversation for hours at a stretch. What did he have to contribute, after all? And what else was there to talk about?

But such explanations are just that: explanations. They are not reasons for why Christians (or anyone) ought to be enthusiastic consumers of pop culture, much less evangelists for it. And rather than flail around for half-baked arguments in support of that view, let me posit the contrary: there are no good reasons. The boring fact is that Christians like pop culture for the same reasons everyone else does—it’s convenient, undemanding, diverting, entertaining, and socially rewarded—and Christians with an audience either (1) rationalize that fact with high-minded justifications, (2) invest that activity with meaning it lacks (but “must” have to warrant the time Christians give to it), or (3) instrumentalize it toward other, non-trivial ends.

Options 1 and 2 are dead ends. Option 3 is well-intended but, nine times out of ten, also a dead end.

The truth is that, for every hour that you do not spend watching Netflix, your life will be improved, and you will have the opportunity to do something better with that time. (I’m generalizing: if, instead of watching Netflix, you break one of the 10 commandments, then you will have done something worse with your time.)

Reading, cooking, gardening, playing a board game, building something with your hands, chatting with a neighbor, grabbing coffee with a friend, serving in a food pantry, learning a language, cleaning, sleeping, journaling, praying, sitting on your porch, resting, catching up with your spouse or housemate: every one of these things would be a qualitative improvement on streaming a show or movie (much less scrolling infinitely on Instagram or Twitter).

There is no argument for spending time online or “engaging” pop culture as a better activity for Christians with time on their hands than these or other activities. Netflix is always worse for your soul—and your mind, and your heart, and your body—than the alternative.

Now, does that mean you should never, ever stream a show? No, although this is usually too quick an escape route for those who would evade the force of the claim. (“Jesus, I know you said turn the other cheek, but could you, quickly though in detail, provide conditions for my justifiably harming or even taking the life of another human being?”) My argument here is not against the liceity of ever streaming a show or otherwise engaging pop culture; it is against the ostensibly positive reasons in favor of its being a good thing Christians ought to do, indeed, ought to care about doing, with eagerness and energy. Because that is a silly thing to believe, and the silliness should be obvious.

I had been meaning to write something like this the last year or two, but a recent exchange between Matthew Lee Anderson, in his newsletter, and his readers, including Brett McCracken, prompted me to finally get these thoughts down. The short version is that Matt suggests people delete their Netflix accounts, and people think that goes too far. (To be clear: Whenever anyone anywhere at any time suggests that people delete their [anything digital/online/social media], I agree reflexively.) The present post isn’t meant as an intervention in that conversation so much as a parallel, complementary reflection.

Any and all libertarian (in the sense of a philosophy of the will’s freedom) Christian accounts of pop culture, Netflix, social media, etc., fail at just this point, because they view individuals as choosers who operate neutrally with options arrayed before them, one of which in our day happens to be flipping Netflix on (or not) and “deciding” to watch a meaty, substantive Film instead of binging bite-size candy-bar TV. But that is not an accurate depiction of the situation. Netflix—and here again I’m using Netflix as a stand-in for all digital and social media today—is a principality and a power, as is the enormous flat-screen television set, situated like a beloved household god in every living room in every home across the country. It calls for attention. It demands your love. It wants you. And its desire for you elicits desire in you for it.

It is, therefore, a power to be resisted, at least for Christians. Such resistance requires ascesis. And ascesis means discipline, denial, and sometimes extreme measures. It might mean you suffer boredom and lethargy on a given evening. It might mean you have to read a book, or use your hands. It might even mean you won’t catch the quippy allusions in a shallow conversation at work. So be it.

A final word, or postscript, speaking as a teacher. I have too many colleagues (across the university and in other institutions) who have effectively admitted defeat in the long war between 20-year olds’ habits and the habits of the classroom, and who thus not only employ various forms of visual media in class (assuming students cannot learn without them) but actively encourage and solicit students’ use of and engagement with social and digital media and streaming entertainment in assignments outside class. Granting that there are appropriate forms of this (for example, in a course on Christianity and culture, one of my assignments is a film critique), I am thinking of more extreme versions of this defeatism.

What I mean is the notion that “this generation” simply cannot be expected to read a book cover to cover, or that the book must be pitched at a 9th-grade level, or that assignments “ought” to “engage” other forms of digital media, because “this is the world we live in.” Education must be entertaining, lest the students not be educated at all. But as Neil Postman has taught us, when education is made to be entertaining, students do not learn while also happening to be entertained. They learn that learning itself must always be fun. And when it isn’t, that must be a failure of some kind.

Our students do not need us to encourage their Netflix and Twitter and other digital habits. They need us to help them unlearn them, so far as is possible within the limits afforded us. Acceptance is not realism, in the classroom any more than in our own lives. Acceptance is acquiescence and retreat. For Christians, at least, that is not an option.

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(originally published at Resident Theologian)

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Posted by Brad East

Brad East (PhD, Yale University) is assistant professor of theology in the College of Biblical Studies at Abilene Christian University in Abilene, Texas. He is the editor of Robert Jenson’s The Triune Story: Collected Essays on Scripture (Oxford University Press, 2019) and the author of The Doctrine of Scripture (Cascade, 2021) and The Church’s Book: Theology of Scripture in Ecclesial Context (Eerdmans, 2022). His articles have been published in Modern Theology, International Journal of Systematic Theology, Scottish Journal of Theology, Journal of Theological Interpretation, Anglican Theological Review, Pro Ecclesia, Political Theology, Restoration Quarterly, and The Other Journal; his essays and reviews have appeared in The Christian Century, Christianity Today, Comment, Commonweal, First Things, The Hedgehog Review, Living Church, Los Angeles Review of Books, Marginalia Review of Books, Mere Orthodoxy, The New Atlantis, Plough, and The Point. Further information, as well as his blog, can be found at


  1. Cambron Wright July 9, 2019 at 12:19 pm

    I appreciate this article. Though I am an avid watcher of TV, I am often amazed at how conversations can suddenly become centered in the question of “what are you watching right now?” Though I do wonder how easily the line can be drawn between what is “pop culture” and what is literature and film–Dickens at the time was quite popular and serialized, but is now appreciated as literature. But I think it’s right as Christians to lean more toward less than more when it comes to media consumption; though I do find that pop culture is an easy, usually harmless way to connect with people who don’t share my beliefs, and I’m not sure that’s a bad thing to have. But I agree that most of us have not thought too deeply about why or if we should watch as much as we do.


  2. Susan Vendikos Gill July 9, 2019 at 11:35 pm

    First of all, I had to read the article twice because the writer has a kind of A.D.D approach to writing meaning he is all over the place, like an excited child who has something to tell but tells it with too many words. After reading it again, I basically agree with his assessment of pop culture and I like his suggestion that young people need to “unlearn” their dependency on it. But I was completely baffled by his use of the word,liceity, “My argument here is not against the liceity of ever streaming a show”. I have never seen this word used outside of Roman Catholic sacramental language. And ascesis?”It is, therefore, a power to be resisted, at least for Christians. Such resistance requires ascesis. ” I always thought this word alluded to severe self discipline in a monkish, Roman Catholic sense, not in the way he seemed to be trying to convey. Professor East has some interesting things to say but for me , at least, his writing style made my head spin.


  3. There are parts of the article I like, but I think the article essentially assumes the conclusion, “consuming pop culture media is essentially worthless,” without ever really taking the time to prove it. That would take a lot of work, and the article substituted hand waving for that work. It would be fair to say that the article has a tinge of elitism associated with it. Who’s to say whether attending an opera or watching Stranger Things is better? Elites, that’s who.


    1. I’m not familiar with Stranger Things, and all operas are not on the one level, nor do all opera fans appreciate them on the same level. In general, high culture asks more of its audience, and returns more because it’s deeper, and multi-layered. Because it requires more knowledge, more education, to fully appreciate, it offers more to reflect on. It educates in turn. To dismiss that argument with the popular pejorative “elitist” is to avoid the argument altogether. Some elites actually deserve to be elite, and the rest of us can learn from them.


  4. […] This faith-based article on engaging with popular culture made me reflect for a […]


  5. […] There is no reason to enthusiastically consume large amounts of pop culture. There are far better pleasures available if we would avail ourselves of them. — Read on […]


  6. I dislike or have no interest in most current pop culture, and I agree that most of it lacks the depth of high culture.But this writer appears to be ignorant of what he rails against – unaware, for example, that Netflix (I don’t have an account) has documentaries and “meaty, substantive Film(s)” as well as fluffy TV shows, and unaware of intelligent, thoughtful songwriters like Jeff Tweedy whose work, or some of it, reflects God’s grace. It’s also bizarre to read that while “Netflix is always worse for your soul—and your mind, and your heart, and your body—than the alternative,” this doesn’t mean that “you should never, ever stream a show.” I expect clear thinking of Mere Orthodoxy, and of writers who sniff at pop culture.


    1. disqus_5T2jXBEN10 August 5, 2019 at 8:19 am

      anything without commercials is somehow a godly alternative


  7. […] fellow named Brad East has recently written a little essay “Against Pop Culture.” Despite the title, he is not denouncing pop culture as totally sinful or exhorting Christians to […]


  8. […] an article “Against Pop Culture,” Brad East writes, “The truth is that, for every hour that you do not spend watching Netflix, your life will be […]


  9. […] No surprise there. The article was titled, simply, “Against Pop Culture.” […]


  10. Stephen Crawford July 18, 2019 at 4:48 pm

    The criticisms made in the comments against this article surprised me. On the one hand, I thought the writing style was fine. But also it’s strange to think that we can’t be critical of popular practices without thereby being elitist. I admit I’m generally sympathetic with the article’s conclusions, so maybe that colors the way I read it. As far as I could tell, though, the clincher was when the author listed a number of other activities–activities that are simple, not high-brow; life-giving, not snooty. And it seems fairly clear to me that people’s use of screens cuts into the time they spend doing those other activities. I’d also say this about the criticisms: they just seem nitpicky.


  11. […] going swimmingly. Blogging to try to engage a little differently online, especially after reading this. Instagram disabled, probably until August 20th at which point I’ll […]


  12. […] some background, Danny found an article that he was hoping to talk about on the intersection of Pop Culture and Religion and why it should never happen… as one might guess by listening to either his show or ours… we all obviously […]


  13. […] Most of the following post will be in response to an article that was recently shared with me, “Against Pop Culture,” but I think the ideas espoused in that article are not unique to its author. Plenty of people […]


  14. disqus_5T2jXBEN10 August 5, 2019 at 8:17 am

    “Christians love pop culture these days.” Really? Scripture says in 1 John 2:15, Love not the world, neither the things that are in the world. If any man love the world, the love of the Father is not in him. Also, in 1 Cor 7:31 those who use the things of the world, as if not engrossed in them. For this world in its present form is passing away. Christians can enjoy the culture they live in, but are admonished not to be “consumed” by it or love it more than we love our Father in heaven


  15. disqus_5T2jXBEN10 August 5, 2019 at 8:20 am

    pop culture is methadone for porn, its not ideal but it wont kill you


  16. […] “Against Pop Culture” by Brad East […]


  17. […] in the summer, Brad East made the case that some Christians over-egg the idea of “engaging with pop culture”, […]


  18. […] up too much of my precious time. I can attest to the truth of what Brad East wrote in an article “Against Pop Culture”: “The truth is that, for every hour that you do not spend watching Netflix, your life will be […]


  19. […] What happens when Christian fans of popular culture1 encounter challenges from other Christians (such as this article by Brad East)? […]


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